On the area of Papuk there is a large number of archeologic sites and monuments of culturally-historical heritage, which point to the continuity of population of this area since the late stone age (the neolitic). The natural wealth of the basic raw materials like water, wood or stone has ensured liveable life conditions, while the hilly area proved shelter and food.
The first settlements on the open have been confirmed in the neolitic with numerous findings of ironed stone tools and hand-made cheramics of the Sopot and Starčevačka cultures (5500-3500 B.C.). On the Papuk hills in the copper age (eneolitic), in the time between 3500-2200 B.C. a few settlements are founded which are forted and moved to the hilltops and higher margins in the copper age, proving protection and control of the natural paths which always led through the valleys of the stream. The confirmed possibility of visual communication between the ancient-historical high settlements, the so-called forted castles.
During the Early Iron Age (750-300 B.C.) in the Požega valley and local hills there were many settlements connected with Kaptol as a center. This world-famous finding of the Hallstatt culture is by findings of rich duke graves under tumuluses connected with the burning of the deceased and putting ashes in urns. Cheramic pots of black color, often coated with a fine layer of graffite and decorated with animal horns, and witness the wealth and power of the Kaptol dukes. Parts of the warrior equipment point to the connection with Greece, and the large degree of culture and economical development of this area.
Off the margins of the Park, from Velika, a valuable finding of Celtic treasure from a female grave has been recorded, belonging to the younger iron age (4th century B.C.)
The Ravine of Požega in antique age was settled all the way from 1st to 4th century, where Romans built numerous villages and farms. All villages were connected via roads, who further connected to main routes - all the way through Podravina: Poetovio (Ptuj) road - Mursa (Osijek) and Posavina: Siscia (Sisak) - Marsunia (Slavonski Brod) - Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica). Remainings of those roads are noticed on several sites.
Both Villa Rustica from 4th century which is discovered in Velika at the Kruge site, and tombstone from Vetovo from the end of 2nd or the beginning of 3rd century, are witnesses of romanisation of this area.
The importance of the Papuk area, especially in the time of the danger of Turkish invasion, is witnessed by the large number of medieval fortresses, out of which the majority is from the 13th century. Near Orahovica there is the most beautiful and preserved "old town" - Ružica, a valuable example of gothic and reinessance art in this part of Croatia. In the mountain atop Ružica there are remains of the Old town, and beyond the village of Slatinski Drenovac there are remnants of the old town Klaka. Near Kamenski Vučjak there is a fortified city Kamengrad, and north from Velika there are ruins of the old Velički grad. There are also the weakly preserved Stražemanski grad and Pogana gradina nearby, close to the village of Doljanovci. All these medieval towns are located in the area of the Park, and in the nearby area there are other valuable monuments of culturally-historical heritage: The Voćin Old town, Rudine (the benedictian opathy of St. Michael from the 12th century), Kaštel in Kaptol, the cistercite opathy of St. Mary in Kutjevo and the monastery of St. Nicholas near Orahovica.